The Power of Critical Thinking, Chapter Download The Power of Critical Thinking, Chapter ( MB). Locale: en. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Carrie-Ann Biondi and others published The Power of Critical Thinking. FALL , VOL. 25, NO. 3 31 The Power of Critical Thinking by Lewis Vaughn New York: Oxford University Press, , Third Edition, pp. Paperback.

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Book Review of Lewis Vaughn's The Power of Critical Thinking (2nd ed.) Carrie- Ann Biondi. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can. AHSS Sep 7, CH1: The Power of Critical Thinking • Not what you think, but rather how you think • Not what causes a belief, but whether it is worth. Brooke Noel Moore. Richard Parker. Critical Thinking. 9th edition. Critical Thinking. Moore / P arker. 9th edition. MD DALIM # 6/11/

But critical thinking skills are not restricted to a particular subject area. Being able to think well and solve problems systematically is an asset for any career. Critical thinking is very important in the new knowledge economy.

The global knowledge economy is driven by information and technology. One has to be able to deal with changes quickly and effectively. The new economy places increasing demands on flexible intellectual skills, and the ability to analyse information and integrate diverse sources of knowledge in solving problems. Good critical thinking promotes such thinking skills, and is very important in the fast-changing workplace.

Critical thinking enhances language and presentation skills.

Thinking clearly and systematically can improve the way we express our ideas. In learning how to analyse the logical structure of texts, critical thinking also improves comprehension abilities.

Critical thinking promotes creativity. To come up with a creative solution to a problem involves not just having new ideas.

It must also be the case that the new ideas being generated are useful and relevant to the task at hand. Critical thinking plays a crucial role in evaluating new ideas, selecting the best ones and modifying them if necessary Critical thinking is crucial for self-reflection. In order to live a meaningful life and to structure our lives accordingly, we need to justify and reflect on our values and decisions.

Critical thinking provides the tools for this process of self-evaluation. Good critical thinking is the foundation of science and democracy.

Science requires the critical use of reason in experimentation and theory confirmation. The proper functioning of a liberal democracy requires citizens who can think critically about social issues to inform their judgments about proper governance and to overcome biases and prejudice.

It says: The Fourth Industrial Revolution, which includes developments in previously disjointed fields such as artificial intelligence and machine-learning, robotics, nanotechnology, 3-D printing, and genetics and biotechnology, will cause widespread disruption not only to business models but also to labour markets over the next five years, with enormous change predicted in the skill sets needed to thrive in the new landscape.

What do you consider the biggest disadvantage of mobile devices? In the last act of the play, Lear holds the lifeless body of his daughter Cordelia in his arms.

What evidence does he call for to settle the matter? In a memo concerning whether commercial speech is protected by the First Amendment [which guarantees freedom of speech], Supreme Court Justice Harry Blackmun wrote that false or misleading advertising could be regulated not because it is commercial or pecuniary in purpose but because [regulation] prevents commercial injury and without it commerce would be impossible.

Can you clarify the reasoning involved? It is a sobering thought that overexposure to lead was probably a factor in the decline of the Roman Empire. Romans lined their bronze cooking, eating, and wine storage vessels with lead. They thus avoided the obvious and unpleasant taste and symptoms of copper poisoning. They traded them for the pleasant flavor and more subtle poisoning associated with lead. Lead was also common in Roman life in the form of paints, and lead pipes were often used to carry water.

The lower classes lived more simply, drank less wine from lead-lined containers, and thus may have picked up far less lead. Arguments and Logic 11 Ehrlich portrays a decadent upper class suffering from lead poisoning, leading Rome to ruin.

However, he does not say whether any bodies of lowerclass Romans have been examined for levels of lead. Assume it is true that the lower classes lived more simply and drank less wine from lead-lined containers.

Does this persuade you that they picked up far less lead than the upper classes? What evidence might support the assertion that the lower classes were exposed to just as much lead?

Hint: Who was mining the lead, working with lead paints and lead pipes, and manufacturing lead-lined containers for wine? On a recent sports news show on television, a football player comments on whether college football players should be paid for playing ball: Football players should be paid because they work five or six hours a day, and have to play—work again—on Saturdays.

It is just like a real job. The player asserts that playing college football is just like a real job.

Does he give any evidence for this? Can you think of any important differences between playing college football and working at a real job? Is it obvious that anyone who works five or six hours a day and again on Saturdays should be paid for that work?

A r gume nt s and L ogic In Exercise Set 1.

Such information, or evidence, as already noted, can be either verbal or physical. When you return damaged goods to a store to prove their condition, you present physical evidence to support your claim that the goods are damaged. Similarly, detective stories tell us that without a body or other physical evidence , it is difficult to support claims that a murder has been committed.

Some, but not all, verbal evidence describes physical evidence. To establish the birth date of George Washington, for example, the evidence you seek is verbal—the words, spoken or written, of some authoritative source.

Arguments are sets of sentences consisting of an assertion to be supported and the verbal evidence for that assertion. When we support some sentence by offering verbal evidence for it, we are arguing for that sentence. These different meanings are related in the sense that when we are involved in a disagreement or dispute, we often try to show that our position is correct by stating evidence to support it. In terms of critical thinking, the word argument most commonly refers to a set of sentences related in such a way that some purport to provide evidence for another, without any suggestion of dispute or disagreement.

Logic is the field of study concerned with analyzing arguments and appraising their correctness or incorrectness. Thus it plays an important part in critical thinking.

Logic, however, is broader than critical thinking because it does not confine itself to examining particular arguments but is a formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. For the purposes of this text, we can think of logic and critical thinking as disciplines that are separate but overlapping. We are especially interested in the area of overlap.

Arguments are made up of sentences. The sentences that state the evidence are premisses; the sentence being argued for is the conclusion. An argument can have any number of premisses, but by definition it can have only one conclusion. The following argument has just one premiss, which is written above the line that separates it from the conclusion: Mary has a twin sister.

Therefore, Mary is not an only child. The next argument has two premisses: Abortion is the same as murder. Murder is wrong. Therefore, abortion is wrong. Many arguments have more than two premisses. Charles Darwin once said that his entire book, The Origin of Species, was just one long argument for a single conclusion: the truth of evolution. Whether a particular sentence is a premiss or a conclusion depends on the role it plays in a given argument.

Human fetuses are persons. Any deliberate killing of a person is murder. Therefore, abortion is murder.

Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking - 6th Edition

We could continue to develop other arguments with new premisses to support any of the premisses of the above argument, particularly if its truth is challenged.

For example, is every deliberate killing of a person murder?

Can you think of an exception? Arguments and Logic 13 Although it is almost always possible to doubt the premisses of an argument and to ask for other arguments to support those premisses, this process normally ends when the interested parties find premisses that they can agree upon as a starting point.

Sometimes this happens quickly, especially when premisses state what is easily observed to be true. But when the arguments concern important issues, such as the morality of abortion, it may be hard to agree on premisses that are less controversial than the proposed conclusions. Sometimes disagreements are so deep that it is impossible for opponents to find any acceptable premisses they can share.

Chapter 1 - The Power of Critical Thinking.pdf - AHSS1250...

Usually the point of an argument is to support the truth of its conclusion. Demonstrating the truth of a conclusion requires both: 1. Logic pays special attention to the second point—the relationship between the premisses and the conclusion. To determine the logical strength of an argument, the question of whether the premisses are actually true may be set aside in favor of answering whether the premisses would support the conclusion if they were true. Although the actual truth of premisses is relevant for critical thinking, it is important to recognize that the truth of premisses and the support they would provide for a conclusion if they were true are two separate issues.

Premisses and conclusions of arguments are usually declarative sentences, which present information and make assertions. Declarative sentences—unlike ordinary questions and commands—can be either true or false. Occasionally you will find that a special kind of question called a rhetorical question serves as a premiss or conclusion of an argument. The following excerpt, taken from an editorial, argues against using female American soldiers to sexually humiliate detainees during interrogations at military prisons, as described in a Pentagon report.

Does anyone in the military believe that a cold-blooded terrorist who has withstood months of physical and psychological abuse will crack because a woman runs her fingers through his hair suggestively or watches him disrobe? If devout Muslims become terrorists because they believe Western civilization is depraved, does it make sense to try to unnerve them by having Western women behave like trollops? But these are rhetorical questions, which means they are devices to emphasize the only suitable response.

R e c o g n iz ing Ar gume nt s Before learning how to classify and evaluate different types of arguments, we want to distinguish arguments from other patterns of language, such as unsupported assertions. In arguments, a sentence that is asserted is supported by other sentences. It makes no sense to accuse someone of presenting a poor argument for a case if no argument at all is offered. The most we can reasonably do in such circumstances is to say that an argument should be given to support the assertion.

When we are trying to identify an argument, the first question to ask is what point the author or speaker is making. When we have identified the sentence that makes the point the conclusion, if it is an argument , then we can ask what assertions, if any, are intended as support or evidence premisses for that point. Examples 1. Cigarette smoking is a serious health hazard. Statistical studies show that cigarette smokers are not only at much greater risk for contracting lung cancer but also have higher incidences of emphysema and heart disease.

In this example, the claim that cigarette smoking is a serious health hazard is the conclusion, and citing statistical studies showing that smokers have higher rates of certain types of serious illness than nonsmokers supports it.

Marijuana should not be legalized because it is potentially dangerous and not enough is known about its long-term effects, and because use of marijuana leads to use of hard drugs. Even though this argument is stated in a single sentence, we can divide that sentence into parts that are themselves sentences and that stand in the relationship of premises and conclusion.

Recognizing Arguments 15 Sometimes special words called indicator words introduce the premisses or the conclusion of an argument. In several arguments presented already, the word therefore served to introduce conclusions. This is a very common use of the term in English. Other terms that often introduce conclusions of arguments are thus, and so, consequently, necessarily, hence, it follows that, and for that reason.

Words that frequently indicate premisses are because, since, for, and for the reason that. In the following arguments, the indicator words are italicized: 1.

Therefore, men and women office workers in comparable positions should be paid the same. In the above argument for equalizing pay between men and women office workers, the indicator word therefore introduces the conclusion of the argument. The premisses are stated before the conclusion. The word for introduces the premises. Although these indicator words often signal premisses or conclusions of arguments, they have other uses as well.

Thus when we see these words, we cannot take for granted that we have identified an argument. Presumably that is so widely known that it needs no support. The sentence asserts, but does not argue, that the reason for his unpopularity was his conduct regarding the war in Iraq. If we want to argue that leading Britain into the war caused his unpopularity, we would present evidence that Blair enjoyed popularity before he acted on questionable information about the danger Iraq posed to Britain.

We might gather evidence that people were angry with his sending soldiers into a war Copyright Cengage Learning. When a subject matter is unfamiliar, it can be difficult to distinguish a causal assertion from an argument.

If, for example, someone were to tell me that the National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA will soon rule that football players can be paid by colleges for playing ball because there has been so much pressure in favor of this move, I would not know whether she was presenting evidence for the assertion that the rule will be changed or whether she was explaining why the rule will be changed. If I am being told that pressure for paying players is a reason to believe that the ruling will change, the passage is intended as an argument.

If I am being told that the new rule going into effect is a result of pressure that was exerted, the passage is a causal explanation.

Improper handling of raw poultry is a major cause of salmonella poisoning. Salmonella can be controlled by cooking poultry throughly and disinfecting or cleaning with hot soapy water any surfaces that have been in contact with raw poultry. Therefore, if you want to avoid infecting your family with salmonella poison, you will clean all surfaces that have been in contact with raw poultry. Thus the platypus is an egg-laying mammal.

Thus I learned to write a decent essay. Moreover, some arguments lack any indicator words. In these cases, we depend on the context as well as the meanings of the sentences to determine whether someone is presenting an argument or instead a series of unsupported assertions.

Recognizing Arguments 17 Here is an argument that has no indicator words: A judgment of acquittal by reason of insanity is appropriate only when a jury verdict of guilty would violate the law or the facts.

The district court did not err in its refusal to enter a judgment of acquittal by reason of insanity.

United States The context a decision by a court of appeals is helpful in determining that the above is an argument, because court rulings are supposed to be supported by reasons. Without background knowledge, however, it can be difficult to decide whether a given sentence is intended to be a premiss or a conclusion.

When no indicator words are present, try to insert them premiss indicators before suspected premisses and conclusion indicators before conclusions to see whether the passage makes sense when reconstructed in this way.

This method will not always work, because if we are unsure of the context we may be unable to see whether one way of constructing the passage makes more sense than another. The meaning of the original passage is not changed when the indicator words are inserted; this supports our view that an argument is present and that we have identified its premisses and conclusion correctly. When we insert indicator words to mark the premisses and conclusion of an argument, we must pay attention to stylistic variations in the way arguments are presented in ordinary language.

Frequently, for emphasis, the conclusion of an argument is stated before the premises, but it is stylistically awkward to begin an argument with therefore. If we want to insert indicator words and at the same time have the passage retain correct English style, we sometimes have to reorder the sentences, putting the conclusion sentence last.

In each of the following arguments: Use the indicator words to help identify the premisses and the conclusion. Rewrite the argument in standard form. That is to say, write each premiss on a line by itself. Underneath the last premiss, draw a line, and write the conclusion beneath the line. Although in standard form premisses are written above the conclusion, it is advisable to identify the conclusion first. Consider the following example. The conclusion is enclosed in parentheses, and each premiss is underlined: The earth is spherical in shape.

For the night sky looks different in the northern and southern parts of the earth, and this would be so if the earth were spherical in shape. This would be so if the earth were spherical in shape. The earth is spherical in shape. Since identical twins, who have the same genes, are more likely to have the same blood pressure than fraternal twins, who share half the same genes, we can conclude that high blood pressure is inherited.

People who say that America is facing inevitable decline as a world power are wrong because the serious problems the U. In England under the blasphemy laws it is illegal to express disbelief in the Christian religion. It is also illegal to teach what Christ taught on the subject of non-resistance.

Russell, Skeptical Essays 4. A coin has been tossed twelve times and has shown a head each time. Thus it is very likely that the next time this coin is tossed it will also show a head. In poker, a flush beats a straight, and a full house beats a flush, so a full house beats a straight.

Recognizing Arguments 19 6. Moral philosophy is an indispensable first step in that larger political campaign [for restricting smoking] because we need to be persuaded that something ought to be done before there is any hope whatsoever that it will.

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Goodin, No Smoking 7. The poet ought always to seek what is necessary or likely in characters as well as in the construction of the incidents, so that it is either necessary or likely that a character say or do such things as well as necessary, or likely that this incident arise with that one. It is apparent, therefore, that the solutions of plots ought to happen as a result of the plots themselves and not from a contrivance.

A building facing a vacant lot on the south is good geomantically because in China, during the summer, the south winds are refreshing and bring good ventilation or cosmic breath. Lip, Feng Shui for the Home 9. Over a period of two years now, I have tested my instrument [the newly invented telescope]—or rather dozens of my instruments—by hundreds and thousands of experiments involving thousands and thousands of objects, near and far, large and small, bright and dark; hence I do not see how it can enter the mind of anyone that I have simplemindedly remained deceived in my observation.

Boorstin in The Discoverers Since creationism can be discussed effectively as a scientific model, and since evolutionism is fundamentally a religious philosophy rather than a science, it is clearly unsound educational practice and even unconstitutional for evolution to be taught and promoted in the public schools to the exclusion or detriment of special creation. Morris, Introducing Creationism in the Public Schools Evolutionary theory merits a place among the sciences for.

Kitcher, Abusing Science In the cast of a die [one of a pair of dice], the probability of ace is one-sixth, because we do actually know either by reasoning or by experience, that in a hundred or a million of throws, ace is thrown in about one-sixth of that number, or one in six times.

All those who have been president of the United States have worked hard and tried their best to make our nation as good as it can be. Thus, we should view any of their actions that brought harm to the country to be the result of bad decisions and mistakes rather than an evil intention to weaken America. But, okay, eventually they do have to download things.

George, Taken part ii. In each of the following arguments, the conclusion is enclosed in parentheses. Try to insert appropriate indicator words before sentences that are premisses or conclusions, and see whether the passage makes sense.

With some choices of indicator words, the sentences need to be rearranged. Men tend to do better on timed multiple-choice tests than on essay tests. SAT tests are timed multiple-choice tests. SAT tests are biased in favor of men. The human body, including the brain, is a material thing.

The human mind is a spiritual thing. Nothing is both a material thing and a spiritual thing. Campbell, Body and Mind 3. In that year Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution by natural selection, which has deeply affected not only biology, but other branches of human thought as well.

Dunn and T. Dobshansky, Heredity, Race and Society 4. If a homeowner decides to pay off a mortgage ahead of schedule, i. Far more damage will be done to the environment from illegal dumping than from regulated, legal disposal.Lead was also common in Roman life in the form of paints, and lead pipes were often used to carry water.

You are using critical thinking when you recognize that many Internet postings are unbelievable nonsense. If critical thinking is conceived broadly to cover any careful thinking about any topic for any purpose, then problem solving and decision making will be kinds of critical thinking, if they are done carefully.

The Definition of Critical Thinking What is critical thinking? It expresses a practical program for achieving an educational goal.

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